By Valerie Marcel, John V. Mitchell
Do not glance now, yet 5 nationally owned oil businesses (NOCs) keep an eye on greater than part the world's reserves of oil and normal fuel. In modern day media-steeped tradition you could anticipate these businesses to be less than a relentless microscope, yet really their operations are usually cloaked in bureaucratic smoke. Valerie Marcel's publication sheds helpful mild at the approach those businesses function and the red-tape constraints they face. whereas the publication suffers from a slightly colorless presentation, it greater than compensates for this with insights into what the NOCs are and the way they relate to the world's insatiable thirst for petroleum. we propose this booklet to severe scholars of the worldwide strength company.
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2002), Barrell and Pomerantz (2004), Hamilton (2005) and IMF (2005). 5 Interestingly, the indexation present in long-term contracts for gas supply to continental Europe is very different to that found in the UK, where over 40% of the price volatility of gas under long-term contracts is determined by changes to the actual hub price of gas (usually the National Balancing Point (NBP) or International Petroleum Exchange (IPE) prices). For Western Europe, changes in hub gas prices account for only around 5% of indexation.
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As pointed out by Costello (2005), care must indeed be taken that arguments in favor of diversity are not used opportunistically by those seeking (via political mechanisms) to protect particular firms and industries. This underlines the need to develop analytical tools to quantify the costs and benefits of increased fuel mix diversity. This section introduces various indices that can be used to quantify fuel mix diversity, and then discusses how new analytical tools borrowed from the financial literature (such that mean-variance portfolio theory and real options theory) can be used to value the costs and benefits of generation mix diversity.