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By L. J. Hume

So much bills of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) take care of him as a prophet of both utilitarianism or of liberal democracy. This e-book discusses a much less everyday yet extremely important point of his political concept: his conception of the way executive associations could be organised with a purpose to functionality as effective and but responsive guardians of the community's pursuits. It therefore makes a speciality of his programme for he govt and judicial branches of presidency instead of for the legislature and the voters. Dr Hume means that eighteenth-century political proposal was once richer in rules approximately govt that has often been allowed, yet that Bentham's certain features of brain enabled him to widen and deepen these rules a lot extra than his contemporaries can have foreseen.

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32 In 1923, while still an undergraduate studying mathematics and philosophy, Ramsey reviewed the Tractatus for Mind, and later that year visited Wittgenstein in Austria, where they pored over the English translation of the Tractatus line by line. When Wittgenstein returned to Cambridge as a student in 1929, Ramsey became his supervisor. In the Preface to the Investigations, Wittgenstein credits him with “always certain and forceful” criticisms of the Tractatus (PI, vi). There is no evidence, however, that he and Wittgenstein discussed pragmatism.

I don’t need a reason to fear the fire, though there are certainly some available if I chose to look. Fearing the fire is simply what I do (having been burnt), and my belief rides on or is interwined with an unreasoned response. The irony in Wittgenstein’s implicit criticism of pragmatism for overintellectualizing our belief system can be brought out by considering a passage from the chapter entitled “Instinct” in The Principles of Psychology, where James writes: Why do men always lie down, when they can, on soft beds rather than on hard floors?

The argument at section 419 of On Certainty is repeated at section 421, the paragraph just before Wittgenstein’s comment that he is saying something that sounds like pragmatism. He shifts the example, from 24 Wittgenstein and William James not having ever been in Asia Minor, to now being in England: “I am in England. – Everything around me tells me so; wherever and however I let my thoughts turn, they confirm this for me at once. ” (OC, 421). The paragraph again ends on a skeptical note, raising the possibility of unforeseen happenings that cast doubt on something as obvious and secure as one’s belief about what country one is in.

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