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The possibility of adding such standards to a synthetic blank matrix to mimic the effect is not an ideal solution since it would introduce uncertainties in the observed ratios because of possible contamination problems (it should be noted that such a matrix may well induce signal suppression and therefore a blank contribution could be masked). Gregoire surmounted the problem by using an anion exchange column with a low affinity for sodium to separate the matrix from the analyte. At a recent conference, Gregoire  commented that the phenomenon was probably associated with a space charge effect occurring within the ion optics .
Figure 4 shows such effects due to bad clean-up. In MS systems and especially in HRMS a bad clean-up will affect the efficiency and the stability of the ionisation process and contaminate the system. 5 Calibration As in other fields, errors in calibration may drastically affect determinations of organic traces. Proper calibration is a difficult task, though underestimated, and requires an experienced analyst. Special difficulties in organic trace analysis are mainly related to the handling of volatile substances, their instability, their storage and transfer.
Acta, in press B. Griepink and G. R. M. Jr. W. Pratt, Fresenius' Z. , 338, 394 (1990) Ph. L. Imbert and M. Olle, Mikrochim. Acta, 111, in press C. Watson, Tr. l G. Knapp, Tr. J. Campbell, G. Vermeir, R. Dams and Ph. , 7, 617 (1992) Ph. M. M. van der Vlies, K. Vercoutere and B. Griepink, Mar. Pollut Bull, 24(1), 33 (1992) Ph. M. Kramer and T. Vinhas, Mar. Pollut. Bull, in press Ph. Quevauviller, K. Vercoutere, H. Muntau and B. Griepink, Fresenius* J. , 345, 12 (1993) Ph. Quevauviller, K. Vercoutere and B.