By Kirk W Madison, Kai Bongs, Lincoln D Carr, Ana Maria Rey, Hui Zhai
The purpose of this booklet is to give overview articles describing the newest theoretical and experimental advancements within the box of chilly atoms and molecules. Our desire is this sequence will advertise learn by way of either highlighting contemporary breakthroughs and by way of outlining one of the most promising study instructions within the field.
Readership: examine scientists together with graduate scholars and higher point undergraduate scholars.
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Extra info for Annual Review of Cold Atoms and Molecules, volume 2
C. Killian operating at 1030 nm in a single longitudinal mode. 4,119,153,154 The trap consists of a horizontal and a nearvertical beam with waists of 32 µm and 80 µm, respectively, thus creating a cigar-shaped geometry. Initially the horizontal beam has a power of 3 W, which corresponds to a potential depth of 110 µK and oscillation frequencies of 1 kHz radially and a few Hz axially. 6 W, which corresponds to a potential depth of 37 µK and a radial trap frequency of 250 Hz. Axially, the vertical beam does not provide any confinement against gravity.
The atomic cloud is not only populating the cross of the dipole trap, but extends ∼1 mm along the horizontal dipole trap. Forced evaporation reduces the trap depth over 550 ms with an exponential time constant of about 250 ms. During evaporation, a large fraction of the atoms in the horizontal beam migrate into the crossing region. The phase transition occurs after about 270 ms of evaporation, and after 480 ms, the thermal fraction within the crossing region cannot be discerned, indicating an essentially pure BEC in this region.
6 µK, where it has trap oscillation frequencies of 250 Hz in the horizontal plane. Confinement in the vertical direction is only provided by the reservoir trap and results in a vertical trap oscillation frequency of 600 Hz. Figure 9(f) shows a demonstration of the dimple trap in absence of the transparency beam: the density in the region of the dimple increases substantially. However, with the dimple alone no BEC is formed because of photon reabsorption. The combination of the transparency laser beam and the dimple trap leads to BEC.