By Jessica A. Lovich-Sapola
The accreditation method for anesthesia within the usa is taken into account some of the most tough in all clinical specialties, with citizens required to move either an oral and written examination to realize certification. This e-book is particularly designed for the yankee Board of Anesthesiology Oral exam. The evidence-based strategy is gifted in a concise outline-oriented layout, with an emphasis on try out effects and visible photos. The Knockout therapy Plan demonstrates the right kind approach to coping with the case to the pride of the examiners, whereas the Technical Knockout sections provide extra information for effectively passing the exam. the easy layout of this ebook makes it appropriate not just as an oral evaluation publication but in addition as an advent to anesthesia rotations for clinical scholars, clinical interns, and nurse anesthetist scholars; moreover, the e-book can be utilized as a technical examine consultant for anesthesia citizens. greater than a hundred issues during this ebook have already been board-review established via citizens.
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Additional info for Anesthesia Oral Board Review: Knocking Out the Boards
B. Hypertonic tube feeds: total parenteral nutrition (TPN), tube feeds c. Ingestion of NaCl or seawater i. A tablespoon of table salt is equal to 350 mEq of NaCl and can raise serum sodium by 8 mEq/L in a 70 kg adult. d. Hypertonic enemas or dialysis Clinical Features of Hypernatremia 1. The severity of the clinical manifestations are determined by the acuity. a. Chronic hypernatremia is less symptomatic. 2. The major symptoms are neurologic and are related to the osmotic decrease in brain volume.
Other i. Increased muscle relaxation ii. Increased depth of anesthesia iii. Wedging of the pulmonary artery catheter 2. Causes of increased EtCO2 a. Increased metabolic rate i. Increased CO2 production (malignant hyperthermia, thyrotoxicosis, and hyperthyroidism) ii. Hyperthermia iii. Sepsis b. Change in elimination i. Rebreathing (valve prolapse, failed CO2 absorber) ii. Hypoventilation iii. Reduction of ventilation (partial paralysis, neurologic disease, high spinal anesthesia, weakened respiratory muscles, or acute respiratory distress) v.
Basic EKG. Drawing credit: J Lovich-Sapola MD. 1. EKG Rate Rate Diagnosis 60–100 Normal <60 Bradycardia >100 Tachycardia 1. 5 mm high. 2. Best viewed in lead II and V1. Therefore, lead II is commonly monitored in the OR because it is the most sensitive for diagnosing arrhythmias. PR interval: generated by the conduction of the electrical impulse through the atria and the AV node. 1. 2 seconds (5 mm). 2. The duration and comparisons of the PR intervals give an insight into the depolarization of and conduction through the atria.