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Download An Ocean of Air: Why the Wind Blows and Other Mysteries of by Gabrielle Walker PDF

By Gabrielle Walker

We don’t simply dwell within the air; we are living as a result of it. It’s the main fabulous substance on the earth, answerable for our foodstuff, our climate, our water, and our skill to listen to. during this exuberant e-book, talented technology author Gabrielle Walker peels again the layers of our surroundings with the tales of the folks who exposed its secrets:

• A flamboyant Renaissance Italian discovers how heavy our air rather is: The air filling Carnegie corridor, for instance, weighs seventy thousand kilos.
• A one-eyed barnstorming pilot unearths a collection of winds that consistently blow 5 miles above our heads.
• An impoverished American farmer figures out why hurricanes stream in a circle by means of carving equations together with his pitchfork on a barn door.
• A well-meaning inventor approximately destroys the ozone layer.
• A reclusive mathematical genius predicts, thirty years ahead of he’s proved correct, that the sky incorporates a layer of floating steel fed by means of the sparkling tails of taking pictures stars.

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Additional info for An Ocean of Air: Why the Wind Blows and Other Mysteries of the Atmosphere

Sample text

This formula describes quite accurately the radiation pattern in the angular region containing the first few side lobes, but beyond that actual radiation patterns often have larger contributions from power scattered by imperfections in the reflector and structures supporting 26 3 Principles of Radar the source. When the beamwidth is small compared to 1 rad, Eq. 2a) shows that the 3-dB beamwidth θ1 is 0! 272/D (rad). , propagates) at a speed c. Thus, the power density S-^θ,φ) incident on targets decreases inversely with r2, although the power P[ transmitted through any enclosing sphere is constant.

FA = 0. In this case the signal is detected directly without its passing through an intermediate frequency. The STALO signal is continuous wave so that whenever echoes arrive a STALO signal is mixed with them. With further discussion restricted to the homodyne receiver, Doppler radar usually has two mixers (without which the direction of the target motion, toward or away, cannot be determined); in one the STALO signal is phase shifted by 90° prior to mixing so that its rectified and filtered output is V0(t) = A exp{ -j 1(4πν/λ) - φ - (π/2)]} U(t - 2r/c).

Range-ambiguous echoes. The nth transmitted pulse and its echoes are crosshatched. This example assumes that the larger echo at delay τ 8ΐ is unambiguous in range but the smaller echo, at delay T S2 , is ambiguous. This second-trip echo, which has a true range delay Ts + T S2 , is due to the in - \)th transmitted pulse. ) We emphasize that ra does not necessarily limit the range to which the pulsed-Doppler radar can achieve useful measurement. If its STALO (Fig. 1) is phase coherent over many Ts intervals, the radar can accurately measure velocities of targets beyond ra.

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