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Download An Introduction to Surfactants by Tharwat F. Tadros PDF

By Tharwat F. Tadros

Surfactants are floor energetic brokers, molecules that experience an important position in emulsions, suspensions, and foams. They locate frequent software in own care, cosmetics, prescription drugs, agrochemicals and the nutrition undefined. Their class, actual houses, part habit, their results and purposes are coated during this ebook.

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Enhancing foaming properties of cleaning and personal care products, stabilizing foam and enhancing detergency. The amide bond increases the hydrophilicity of the fatty acid and therefore the surfactant becomes chemically and physically very stable under alkaline conditions. Synthesis of amides can be done by proteases, but these enzymes are very specific for certain amino acids and are more sensitive to organic solvents. Lipases have been used for synthesis of peptides, fatty amides and N-acylamino acids and the acylation of alkanolamines.

However, simple inorganic counterions are very loosely associated with the micelle. The counterions are very mobile (see below) and there is no specific complex formed with a definite counterion-head group distance. In other words, the counterions are associated by long-range electrostatic interactions. A useful concept for characterizing micelle geometry is the critical packing parameter, CPP. 1) where Rmic is the radius of the micelle. The aggregation number, N, is also equal to the ratio of the area of a micelle, Amic , to the cross-sectional area, a, of one surfactant molecule, N= 2 Amic 4⁄ Rmic = .

This accounts for the large entropy of transfer of an alkane from water to a hydrocarbon medium. This effect is also reflected in the much higher heat capacity change on transfer, Cop , when compared with the heat capacity in the gas phase, Cop . This effect is also operative on transfer of surfactant monomer to a micelle, during the micellization process. The surfactant monomers will also contain “structured” water around their hydrocarbon chain. On transfer of such monomers to a micelle, these water molecules are released and they have a higher entropy.

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