By Tharwat F. Tadros
Surfactants are floor energetic brokers, molecules that experience an important position in emulsions, suspensions, and foams. They locate frequent software in own care, cosmetics, prescription drugs, agrochemicals and the nutrition undefined. Their class, actual houses, part habit, their results and purposes are coated during this ebook.
Read or Download An Introduction to Surfactants PDF
Similar industrial & technical books
Within the final decade there was an important raise in examine into color similar phenomena, matched through various new technological purposes of business worth requiring a completely revised and up to date variation of the 1st publication. the second one version covers the components the place chemical compounds or fabrics have interaction with mild to supply color, a color swap, or luminescence and the place "coloured" compounds are used to move strength or manage mild in a roundabout way.
From uncomplicated rules to new and rising business functions, this booklet deals entire insurance of heterogeneous liquid-phase selective oxidation catalysis. It totally examines the synthesis, characterization, and alertness of catalytic fabrics for environmentally pleasant natural syntheses.
New and destiny advancements in Catalysis is a package deal of 7 books that assemble the most recent rules referring to exchange and renewable power assets and the position that catalysis performs in changing new renewable feedstock into biofuels and biochemicals. either homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic procedures may be mentioned in a unified and finished method.
For Researchers, scholars, business execs, and ManufacturersElectrochemical relief of Carbon Dioxide: basics and applied sciences is your advisor to enhanced catalytic functionality within the electrochemical aid of carbon dioxide (CO2). Written by way of electrochemical power scientists actively enthusiastic about environmental study and improvement, this publication addresses the largest problem to CO2 electrochemical reduction—low functionality of the electrocatalysts—and outlines functional purposes for the potent use of CO2.
- Guidelines for Defining Process Safety Competency Requirements
- HIV-1 Integrase
- Gasification of Rice Hulls: Theory and Praxis
- Databook of Green Solvents
- Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology [Vol 18]
- Protein Purification. From Molecular Mechanisms to Large-Scale Processes
Extra info for An Introduction to Surfactants
Enhancing foaming properties of cleaning and personal care products, stabilizing foam and enhancing detergency. The amide bond increases the hydrophilicity of the fatty acid and therefore the surfactant becomes chemically and physically very stable under alkaline conditions. Synthesis of amides can be done by proteases, but these enzymes are very specific for certain amino acids and are more sensitive to organic solvents. Lipases have been used for synthesis of peptides, fatty amides and N-acylamino acids and the acylation of alkanolamines.
However, simple inorganic counterions are very loosely associated with the micelle. The counterions are very mobile (see below) and there is no specific complex formed with a definite counterion-head group distance. In other words, the counterions are associated by long-range electrostatic interactions. A useful concept for characterizing micelle geometry is the critical packing parameter, CPP. 1) where Rmic is the radius of the micelle. The aggregation number, N, is also equal to the ratio of the area of a micelle, Amic , to the cross-sectional area, a, of one surfactant molecule, N= 2 Amic 4⁄ Rmic = .
This accounts for the large entropy of transfer of an alkane from water to a hydrocarbon medium. This effect is also reflected in the much higher heat capacity change on transfer, Cop , when compared with the heat capacity in the gas phase, Cop . This effect is also operative on transfer of surfactant monomer to a micelle, during the micellization process. The surfactant monomers will also contain “structured” water around their hydrocarbon chain. On transfer of such monomers to a micelle, these water molecules are released and they have a higher entropy.