By James K. Hoffmeier
Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is without doubt one of the such a lot interesting rulers of historic Egypt. His atypical visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the sunlight disc Aten have prompted educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the varied books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions on Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.
In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James okay. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten used to be no longer, as is usually stated, a thorough advocating a brand new faith yet relatively a primitivist: that's, one that reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's suggestion used to be the previous country (2650-2400 B.C.E.), whilst the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unmatched head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier reveals that Akhenaten was once a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only real author God, in line with the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine stumble upon that introduced his monotheistic spiritual odyssey.
The e-book additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable dating to Israel's faith, providing a detailed comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out by way of students as encouraged by means of the Egyptian hymn.
Through a cautious examining of key texts, works of art, and archaeological stories, Hoffmeier offers compelling new insights on a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the effect of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.
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Extra resources for Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism
It is widely believed that the sun cult of Heliopolis served as the model for these sun temples. W. ”130 Could it be that Userkaf ’s identification as the priest of Re in the divine birth story in Papyrus Westcar was intended to reflect Userkaf ’s role in erecting the first sun temple? , & ). 131 It did not originate in W. Steveson Smith, “The Old Kingdom in Egypt,” in Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 1, part 2 (eds. I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, & N. G. L. Hammond; Cambridge: The University Press, 1971), 180.
122 Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 219. All quotes in this paragraph are taken from Lichtheim’s translation. 118 26 Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism “Inventory in On,” apparently in the temple complex in Heliopolis. Khufu orders Djedi to get it for him, but he declines, indicating “the eldest of the three children who are in the womb of Ruddedet . . ” “Who is this Ruddedet” the king asked. The answer: “she is the wife of a priest of Re, lord of Sakhbu, who is pregnant with three children of Re, lord of Sakhbu.
89 Heliopolis is mentioned in line 1 of the base Quirke, The Cult of Ra, 27–29. The connection between these terms has been discussed by John Baines, “Bnbn: Mythological and Linguistic Notes,” Orientalia 39 (1970): 389–404. 90 So this obelisk text strikingly connects the monoliths to solar theology and Heliopolis. The obelisk, then, can be traced back to the Old Kingdom, and is one of the most enduring solar images from ancient Egypt. How early its precursor, the bnbn-stone, became the cult symbol at the temple of Atum in Heliopolis is not known.