By ACI Committee 305
Environmental components, corresponding to excessive ambient temperature, low humidity, excessive wind, or either low humidity and excessive wind, have an effect on concrete houses and the development operations of combining, transporting, and putting of the concrete fabrics. This consultant presents measures that may be taken to lessen the bad results of those environmental components and decrease the opportunity of severe problems.
This advisor defines sizzling climate, discusses strength difficulties, and provides practices meant to lessen them. those practices contain deciding upon fabrics and proportions, precooling elements, and batching. different subject matters mentioned comprise size of haul, attention of concrete temperature as positioned, amenities for dealing with concrete on the website, and, throughout the early curing interval, putting and curing recommendations, and acceptable checking out and inspection techniques in sizzling climatic conditions. The fabrics, tactics, qc measures, and inspections defined during this rfile can be demonstrated, monitored, or played as acceptable in basic terms via participants protecting the perfect ACI certifications or an identical.
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Extra info for ACI 305R-10: Guide to Hot Weather Concreting
Earth’s orbit is not exactly circular, and currently Earth is somewhat closer to the Sun during Southern Hemisphere summer than during Northern Hemisphere summer. 9% higher than that in the Northern Hemisphere. Note that at the summer solstice the insolation in high latitudes is actually greater than that near the equator. This results from the very long days during summer and in spite of the relatively large solar zenith angles at high latitudes. 38 2. 6 Contour graph of the daily average insolation at the top of the atmosphere as a function of season and latitude.
4 PLANCK’S LAW OF BLACKBODY EMISSION The intensity of radiation in a cavity in thermodynamic equilibrium is given uniquely as a function of frequency and temperature by Planck’s law. An object that absorbs all radiations incident on it is called a blackbody. 37 × 10−23 JK−1 (Boltzmann’s constant), c* = 3 × 108 ms−1 (speed of light), ν is the frequency of radiation in s−1, T is the temperature in Kelvins. The Stefan–Boltzmann law is an integral of Planck’s law over all frequencies and over all angles in a hemisphere, and expresses the strong dependence of energy emission on temperature.
Data from CERES 2000–2013. 42 2. 10 Global maps of outgoing longwave radiation. Data from CERES 2000–2013. 11 Global maps of net incoming radiation. Data from CERES 2000–2013. 43 44 2. The Global Energy Balance despite their subtropical latitude, they lose energy in the annual average. Their energy loss is related to the relatively high surface albedo of dry deserts, combined with the large OLR loss associated with a dry, cloudless atmosphere above a warm surface. Since deserts are land, which cannot transport heat laterally, the radiative loss at the top of the atmosphere must be balanced by horizontal heat transport by the atmosphere into the desert region from elsewhere.