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By Dr. Lars Håkanson (auth.)

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5 ? Knowing the lake form, a new Lr -value may be determined accordingly (eq. 22 km. 30 500 s n That is, sn 1 670 km. 22 the corresponding figure is 2 270 km. Consequently, an additional survey of (2 270 - 1 670) = 600 km must be carried out to meet the initial requirement concerning the information value of the bathymetric map. This example has been chosen to illustrate the use of the formulae in the optimization model. It clearly shows the great benefit of the model. The intensity of the survey may be discussed in relation to the aim of the survey and the yield of the survey, and all discussions can be carried out in quantitative terms.

L f in km); defined according to a method introduced by Beach Erosion Board (1972) (Fig. 15). The effective fetch gives a more representative measure of how the wind governs the waves (wave length, wave height) than the effective length, since several wind directions are taken into account. A proper figure of the effective fetch is rather easy to determine by means of a special transparent paper illustrated on Fig. 16. ~~ 27 t'2· Lei 9Cdh-de) dh de zh Ze -+(i) \ --------~WIND STOPS c (ii) /I , ----~---- interv al seiche Fig.

M Fig. 20. 01~----~------_r------r_----~~ 3 10 30 100 Mean depth, m Fig. 21. The loading of Nand P in relation to trophic level and mean depth in the Swedish Great Lakes (from Vollenweider, 1968 and Ahl, 1975) (DSO in m); according to definition, 50 %of the lake area should lie below the D50 -value and 50 % above. The median depth is determined from the percentage hypsographic curve (or the hypsographic curve) (see Fig. 22). DSO = 22 m in Lake Vanem. In lakes with convex relative hypsographic curves, like Lake Vanem, the mean depth (D) is larger than the median length (DSO )' In lakes with concave relative hypsographic curves the opposite is valid.

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