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By Fred Aftalion

Goals to supply a world standpoint on chemistry, integrating the tale of chemical technological know-how with that of the chemical undefined, and emphasizing vital advancements of the 20 th century.

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A little earlier the Swedish apothecary Carl Wilhelm Scheele had isolated such a gas, but his work was not published until 1777. During this period, the French scientist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was also experimenting with combustion and respiration.  Courtesy Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection. " Later it was called oxygen. Lavoisier gave a totally new explanation of the chemical action of oxygen. Before Lavoisier, combustion was explained by the phlogiston theory enunciated by Georg Ernst Stahl, a German physician and chemist of the latter part of the seventeenth century, who was heavily influenced by ancient allegories and by alchemical thought.

Since people were no longer eating raw foods, they had to salt meat and fish to preserve them, and to add salt to cooked food to compensate for the loss of this mineral in the cooking juices. The Roman army distributed salt rations called salarius to their soldiers. " Page 3 Mastering new techniques to improve well-being was not enough for the people of the time; they sought to formulate an intellectually satisfying reason for the existence of things. Greek philosophers considered nature to be composed of four fundamental elements, which are described in the works of Plato and Aristotle: fire, air, water, and earth.

It also enabled people to transform some materials, such as changing yellow ochre into red ochre by heating it. Later, Neolithic people knew how to bake pottery and to extract such metals as copper from malachite by reduction using charcoal. , is the first "synthetic" metal, since it is an alloy (90 percent copper and 10 percent tin) that does not exist in nature. To obtain bronze required a reaction between cassiterite, a tin oxide, and copper ore. , the reduction by charcoal of minerals containing iron oxide had begun in the Middle East.

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