By Donald L. Downing
The thirteenth variation of a whole path in canning is prepared for distribution for these drawn to the canning, glass packing, and aseptic processing industries. This booklet has been completely revised and up-to-date via Dr Donald Downing. The books are a technical reference and textbooks for college students of foodstuff know-how; foodstuff plant managers; product examine and improvement experts; meals apparatus brands and salesmen; agents; and foodstuff providers. the 3 books comprise a complete of over 1650 pages. Dr Donald Downing, Professor of meals processing, big apple Agricultural test Station, Cornell college, Geneva, manhattan, has introduced jointly many matters, heretofore unpublished, as a unit. the target was once to make the books so finished that they hide all levels of processing and so entire that they can be used as textbooks in meals expertise classes, in addition to reference manuals and guide books for all of the nutrition processing undefined, lay participants, in addition to the pro meals technologist. This new version has been absolutely revised and improved over earlier variations, having new sections, new items and methods, and covers matters from making a marketing strategy and making plans a foodstuff processing operation, via processing and into the warehousing of the completed product.
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Additional info for A Complete Course in Canning and Related Processes: Microbiology, packaging, HACCP & ingredients (vol. 2)
0) 13 14 MICROBIOLOGY, PACKAGING, HACCP & INGREDIENTS Effect of Temperature on Growth of Microorganisms In actively growing stages, most microorganisms are readily killed by exposure to temperatures near the boiling point of water; bacterial spores, however, are more heat resistant than their vegetative cells. Bacteria can be classified according to temperature requirements for growth. Bacteria growing at temperatures between 68- 1 13 • F (20-45 · C), with optima between 86- 1 04 " F (30-40 " C), are called mesophiles.
The optimum growth temperature of the botulism organism for the development of toxin is from 65-85 " F ( 1829 " C). Five to ten p ercent salt content in products such as salt-cured meats and fish will prevent the growth of C. botulinum. Botulism Outbreaks Most outbreaks of botulism are dramatic; symptoms appear suddenly within 8 to 72 hours after ingesting the toxin and progress rapidly. Typical symptoms involve the nervous system and result in double vision, difficulty in swallowing, impaired speech, difficulty in breathing, and paralysis of the extremities.
Occasionally, rotary drum blanchers are used, but since this equipment is difficult to clean, spoilage organisms may develop; their use is not recommended. Makeup water should be added to blanchers at a reasonably rapid rate. Both rotary drum blanchers and tubular blancher systems may become contaminated with thermophilic spoilage bacteria. Contamination, which occurs during shutdown periods, can be minimized by prompt cooling of the blanchers after use, thorough cleaning, elimination of steam leaks, and flushing of the blancher system before its next use.